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NEW PAPER, added 10/16/14, Dark Matter Detection? No, just more desperation from the mainstream. I show the axion is another fake particle, created to hide the charge field.
PAPER UPDATE, added 10/8/14, Climate and the Seasons. I have added about three pages to this paper, updating it and correcting it to reflect work I have done in the past 19 months.
NEW PAPER, added 9/30/14, Climate and the Seasons. I just found a paper from more than a year ago that I posted but forgot to link into this Updates page. So it is new to you, I think.
NEW PAPER, added 9/25/14, The Wool Spinners. Where I show my planted critics are reading from a script.
PAPER UPDATE, added 9/24/14, The Cause of the Solar Cycle. Due to reader demand, I have extended this paper, with two more "hindcasts," including the difficult current cycle. I have also gone more deeply into the mechanics, showing how the charge fields of the four big planets stack and interfere.
NEW PAPER, added 9/19/14, Solid Light? No, just another bad interpretation of the Charge Field. I analyze the recent paper from Princeton, claiming solid light, stopped light, or blended light. In doing so, I am able to explain high-temperature superconduction mechanically, including showing the physical cause of the Meissner Effect. My analysis includes a full nuclear diagram of a Copper-Oxide ceramic, showing how charge is channeled through the architecture. This destroys BCS and RVB theory, Cooper pairs, polaritons, dimer math, and the rest of the fudged pseudo-explanations of solid-state physics.
NEW PAPER, added 9/7/14, The Cause of the Solar Cycle. I do the unified field math, showing the cycle is caused by charge and magnetic influences from the four large planets.
NEW PAPER, added 9/3/14, Quantum Teleportation? NO. I pull apart the recent announcement, showing it is fudged in at least three places.
NEW PAPER, added 8/16/14, Using the Charge Field to Inflate Evolution Theory. Charge and the active enzyme.
NEW PAPER, added 8/8/14, Graham Hancock Unmasks Himself. Also an outing of Daniel Pinchbeck, Russell Brand, and Rubert Sheldrake.
PAPER UPDATE, added 7/22/2014. Rayleigh Scattering. I have included an addendum, showing how Rayleigh scattering is really an analoque of laser production, using a pumped field. This may help some understand my analysis. See near bottom of paper.
NEW PAPER, 7/12/2014. The Aberration of Starlight, including analysis of Airy's water-filled telescope, the Sagnac Effect, the Hammar experiment. and the Lodge experiment.
NEW PAPER, 7/10/2014. 80% of Light Missing? No, just more proof of my charge field.
NEW PAPER, 6/24/2014. Explaining the P-N Junction without Holes. I pull apart diode theory, including the misnamed tunneling diode.
NEW PAPER, 6/18/2014. Alternating Current and Inductance. I explain A/C with the charge field and real photons, clarifying several things, including the skin effect.
NEW PAPER, 5/21/2014. The Fourth Phase of Water. Part 2 of my analysis of Gerald Pollack's book.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 5/19/2014. My Second Conference. We are about a month away from my second conference and I still have a couple of chairs open. Contact me soon if you wish to attend.
PAPER UPDATE, 5/1/2014. My Opposition. A lesson from my critics, whereby they show us how they can box for a decade and never land a punch.
NEW PAPER, 4/18/2014. EVO's and the Charge Field. I analyze a short paper by the late Ken Shoulders.
NEW PAPER, 4/16/2014. The Fourth Phase of Water? I analyze several chapters of Gerald Pollack's popular book, showing his data is easiest to read as a result of charge channeling.
PAPER UPDATE, 4/16/2014. The Hydrogen Bond. I have replaced the water diagrams, to represent my newest understanding of these molecules. This changes none of the main argument in the paper, but does better match known data.
PAPER UPDATE, 4/13/2014. The Extinction of Pi. I have added a section on the cycloid to the first part of the paper, linking the arc length 8r of the cycloid to the kinematic circumference 8r of the circle.
NEW PAPER, 4/12/2014. Robert Hofstadter and Nuclear Bombardment. A re-analysis of three of Hofstadter's important papers from the 1950's. I show my nuclear model matches the data much better than the old models.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 4/9/2014. My Second Conference. Click for details.
NEW PAPER, 4/2/2014. Period Six of the Periodic Table. Including a close look at Hafnium, Caesium, and the Lanthanides. A new theory of Lanthanide Contraction.
NEW PAPER, 3/23/2014. The Polar Aurorae. We study the aurorae using the charge field, discovering many things.
NEW PAPER, 3/18/2014. Gravity Waves of Propaganda. I closely analyze the announcement of gravity waves, including the ArXiv paper.
NEW PAPER, 3/15/2014. Earth's Dark Matter Halo? No. I clear up more mainstream confusion.
NEW PAPER, 3/6/2014. Learn to Recognize Government Disinformation. I re-publish some of Edward Snowden's leaked documents, which prove that government agencies are indeed using lies and dirty tricks in online forums to discredit people.
NEW PAPER, 3/2/2014. Rewriting the Rayleigh Equation. A complete and total rewrite, from the ground up.
NEW PAPER, 2/28/2014. The Anti-Stokes Fudge. I expand my critique of Rayleigh scattering to include all anti-Stokes processes.
NEW PAPER, 2/28/2014. Wikipedia, Paid Editors, and Propaganda. The title says it all.
PAPER UPDATE, 2/28/2014. Hawking admits there is no Black Hole. In a short addendum, we find National Geographic acting as a lead propagandist for particle physics. Very strange.
PAPER UPDATE, 2/26/2014. The Rainbow. A couple more paragraphs added, these to answer questions from a reader.
PAPER UPDATE, 2/25/2014. The Rainbow. In an addendum, I show that the quadruple rainbow is impossible to explain sensibly with current light mechanics, but easy to explain with my mechanics.
NEW PAPER, 2/8/2014. The Proton Radius Puzzle: the simple solution. Using the charge field, of course.
NEW PAPER, 1/26/2014. Stephen Hawking Signals the End of Modern Physics. He admits there is no black hole.
NEW PAPER, 1/6/2014. Salt is not What We Thought, and molecular bonding isn't, either.
NEW PAPER, 12/10/2013. Nobel Prize Winner Boycotts Top Science Journals. Taking us down the rabbit hole again.
NEW PAPER, 11/18/2013. The Great Methane Stink. I closely analyze Methane, showing how electron orbital theory fails again.
NEW PAPER, 11/8/2013. The Two-Envelopes Paradox. More misdirection by the mainstream, to help them save entanglement.
NEW PAPER, 10/17/2013. Decoding Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry using the Charge Field. I show that the Unified Field helps us understand occult symbolism all the way back to John Dee, 1564.
NEW PAPER, 9/24/2013. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. With diagrams. I analyze the current theories of NMR and EPR, including Larmor precession.
NEW PAPER, 9/13/2013. Deuterium and Tritium. With diagrams. Plus analysis of proton-proton reaction in stars.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 9/5/2013. My First Conference. A brief report on our very successful conference.
NEW PAPER, 9/4/2013. Dielectric Polarization. Using my nuclear diagrams, I show that the current explanation is all wrong.
PAPER UPDATE, 9/2/2013. More Proof from Huffpost that Physics is Dead. In an addendum, I address a reader's claim that I use the wrong equation here, showing that the mainstream is the one who does that.
NEW PAPER, 8/31/2013. NASA's Space Caterpillar. I show the mainstream explanation is flawed in all ways. The wind is charge wind.
My new book Navigating the Atomic Nucleus is finally out in hardcover, with color diagrams. Click here to see full chapter list, and order directly from me. Softback out soon.
NEW PAPER, 8/26/2013. The Equatorial Anomaly. I analyze the data here, showing a better field explanation using charge. Includes the unified field math for the crests.
NEW PAPER, 8/24/2013. Evanescent Waves. I show this is just the charge field again, with no need for evanescent waves or tunneling.
PAPER UPDATE, 8/20/2013. On Quantum Nonlocality. I have added a clarification to my expanded wavefunction, to answer questions from readers.
NEW PAPER, 8/19/2013. Einstein, Black Holes and New York Times Propaganda. I analyze a recent newspaper article, showing how it proves we are now in a "post-science" age.
NEW PAPER, 8/18/2013. The Barkhausen Effect. I show that there are no domains.
NEW PAPER, 8/17/2013. Birkeland Currents. I analyze the current diagrams and theory, showing the charge field beneath Birkeland currents.
PAPER UPDATE, 8/8/2013. What Causes the Earth's Heat? Charge. I have added a link to a JPL paper, which admits to problems with the dynamo theory. I then show the easy solution, using charge channeling instead of a dynamo.
NEW PAPER, 8/7/2013. Lunar Phases, Charge, and Sleep. I analyze the recent experiments from Basel, showing that charge is once again the answer.
NEW PAPER, 8/5/2013. More from the Mainstream. I share some anonymized exerpts from a recent email exchange with the private sector, proving my nuclear diagrams allow me to make specific predictions.
NEW PAPER, 8/4/2013. A Letter from the Mainstream. I share anonymized excerpts from a set of emails from a mainstream physicist, confirming my analysis of the field.
PAPER UPDATE, 8/2/2013. My Opposition. Non-reader Doug De Vries sticks his neck out, and I obligingly take off his head. Go to bottom of paper to see the fun. If you don't like stuff like this, just don't read it.
NEW PAPER, 7/31/2013. Superfluids explained by the Charge Field. I analyze the current theory and replace it with a mechanical one.
NEW PAPER, 7/28/2013. Blackbody Radiation as an Attraction. I explain the new experiments with photon spins.
NEW PAPER, 7/26/2013. Hadronization. I show that QCD is nonphysical, nonmechanical, and nondynamical. In short, a conjuring from the void and nothing more.
PAPER UPDATE, 7/23/2013. Canada's Gravity Deficit. See addendum, where I respond to Weather Channel propaganda.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 7/15/2013. My First Conference. There will be a small conference for a few serious students of mechanics during the third week of August. Click to see details.
NEW PAPER, 7/12/2013. Voyager 1 and the Heliopause. I explain the mysterious new data with the antiphoton and my doubled wavefunction.
NEW PAPER, 7/10/2013. The Compton Wavelength as evidence for the Photon Wavefunction. Since the Compton Wavelength is currently defined as "the wavelength of a photon..." the wavefunction must go with the photon as well.
NEW PAPER, 7/1/2013. Venus Proves my Charge Field Again Slowing rotation and accelerated winds can be explained easily with my spin models, but not at all by the mainstream or the Thunderbolts.
NEW PAPER, 6/24/2013. Hollow Neon Atoms? I analyze a recent article from Scientific American, showing proof of charge channeling.
NEW PAPER, 6/14/2013. Replacing van der Waals Forces with the Charge Field. Moving both the field and the wavefunction to the photon.
NEW PAPER, 6/11/2013. Black-body Radiation IS the Charge Field. I show the equivalence of various photon fields.
NEW PAPER, 6/7/2013. Re-assigning the Boltzmann Constant, also re-assigning Avogadro's Constant. Giving both to the charge field. The revolution continues.
NEW PAPER, 6/6/2013. The Drude-Sommerfeld Model, and the problem of heat capacity. I show a better model for both fields.
NEW PAPER, 5/31/2013. On Weak Allies. I answer a recent email, and make a few more amusing comments.
NEW PAPER, 5/30/2013. Olbers' Paradox. I show the easy solution, which confounds all current solutions. Also, I link Olbers' Paradox to gravitational lensing.
NEW PAPER, 5/27/2013. The Death of Polemics. The replies I get from mainstream scientists are as pathetic as the theories they hide behind.
NEW PAPER, 5/27/2013. On Quantum Nonlocality. I show that my superposition solution must destroy quantum nonlocality.
NEW PAPER, 5/25/2013. The Latest Hoax in Physics: Eric Weinstein. A hedge fund consultant as the next Einstein?
NEW PAPER, 5/23/2013. Photon Spin is REAL. The University of Glasgow (all but) admits it.
PAPER UPDATE, 5/20/2013. Superposition. I have finally answered a question asked of me by a reader, concerning the second spin. See the end of the paper.
PAPER UPDATE, 5/19/2013. Explaining Magnetism. My recent diagram of Iron has allowed me to update my old paper on magnetism, simplifying parts of it and jettisoning any mention of unpaired electrons.
NEW PAPER, 5/15/2013. Period 4 of the Periodic Table. In this long paper I provide the nuclear diagrams for many elements, including iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, germanium and bromine, showing the mechanical cause of many elemental characteristics. As a bonus, I also show how to diagram a Neodymium magnet.
NEW PAPER, 5/8/2013. Gauss' Electrical Law = Gauss' Gravity Law and they are both Unified Field Equations. I prove unification by going from one field to the other with simple variable substitutions.
NEW PAPER, 5/7/2013. Gauss' Law as a Unified Field Equation. I extend my comments from previous papers, showing how Gauss' equation is unified, and how the fields combine.
NEW PAPER, 5/6/2013. Lev Landau Fudges the Orbital Math. I closely analyze a text from 1960, showing the multiple pushes. I then correct the mistakes using my Unified Field Equation instead of the Lagrangian.
PAPER UPDATE, 5/2/2013. Uranium TetraFluoride. I have redrawn all the nuclear diagrams, to match the colors first used in my liquid Mercury paper. This may clear up some confusion. My paper on Building Uranium has also been updated in the same way. Hopefully all my nuclear papers now match in terms of colored disks.
My new book Navigating the Nucleus will be out soon. This is the cover. Click to go to blowup.
PAPER UPDATE, 4/28/2013. My Opposition. I get an email from UCDavis, to humorous effect. Skip to bottom of the paper for the update.
NEW PAPER, 4/25/2013. Time and the Photon. A response to AskaMathematician.com, on how the photon travels without experiencing time.
NEW PAPER, 4/23/2013. More Proof from HuffPost that Physics is Dead. Victor Stenger can't do highschool math.
NEW PAPER, 4/19/2013. Maxwell's Equations are Unified Field Equations, part 2. I show how Maxwell's vortices fail, how to correct them, and how to calculate the charge field from the Electrical Field.
NEW PAPER, 4/18/2013. Maxwell's Equations are Unified Field Equations. I show why, and begin a full analysis of Maxwell's displacement field.
NEW PAPER, 4/15/2013. Explaining the Density of Osmium. I show why Osmium is the densest stable element, using my nuclear diagrams.
PAPER UPDATE, 4/15/2013. The Semi-Empirical Mass Formula. I have rewritten the first quarter of this paper, to correct some confusion I had as to the mainstream theory. But this doesn't affect my critique of the theory in the last 3/4's of the paper. Nor does it affect the gist of my solution. The definition of magic number is wrong no matter how it is interpreted. With my correction, I show Iron is more magic than Calcium. I have also been forced to tweak my diagram of Tin, based on a new understanding of the nucleus from studying Osmium. See nuclear.pdf.
NEW PAPER, 4/12/2013. Canada's Gravity Deficit. I show that convection theory and ice sheet theory cannot explain the gravity maps, but charge can.
NEW PAPER, 4/5/2013. New Physics dies an ignominious death. I analyze a couple of recent articles from New Scientist to show that physics is dead.
PAPER UPDATE, 4/2/2013. The Magnetic Moments of Proton, Neutron and Electron. I have fine-tuned the math and mechanics between proton and neutron, matching the given numbers even more closely.
NEW PAPER, 3/31/2013. The Magnetic Moments of Proton, Neutron and Electron. I show how to calculate one from the other, using spin mechanics.
NEW PAPER, 3/28/2013. The Solar Neutrino Problem. The current solution is shown to be faked, and I show the real solution.
NEW PAPER, 3/28/2013. The PLANCK Probe's CBR Map. Clear evidence of local fields, and of charge.
NEW PAPER, 3/27/2013. The Moon's Ionosphere, as further proof of my charge field.
NEW PAPER, 3/26/2013. The Brightness of the Sky, or, the spectacular fudge that is Rayleigh scattering.
NEW PAPER, 3/22/2013. RFID Fields and the Nucleus. Recent photographs of the RFID field are actually photographs of the charge field.
NEW PAPER, 3/18/2013. Mystic Symbolism and the Charge Field. We look at the flower of life, the mandala, and the hexagram as representations of the charge field.
NEW PAPER, 3/16/2013. More on the Golden Ratio. Showing the link between phi and the inverse square law.
NEW PAPER, 3/13/2013. Magnetic Reconnection and the Solar Corona. I show that charge is the cause of the heat of the corona, taking you beyond the current theory.
NEW LINK, 3/11/2013. Stephen Crothers Speaks. Video of Crothers speaking in Albuquerque this year, revealing the fudges in the Black Hole "solutions".
NEW PAPER, 3/10/2013. More on Enceladus and Albedo. I show several large fudges in the albedo math, proving a cover-up of brightness.
NEW PAPER, 3/6/2013. Saturn's "Anemic" Magnetic Field. I show how to calculate Saturn's magnetic field straight from unified field numbers.
PAPER UPDATE, 3/6/2013. Mercury's Magnetism. Using my new charge field equations, I show that Mercury must have an offset center of mass, causing a suppressed spin. With perfect spin, Mercury should have 9 times the magnetic field.
NEW PAPER, 3/6/2013. The Strange Moon Enceladus. I show that Enceladus, Mimas, Triton, Uranus, and our own Moon prove my unified field, and confirm my theory of cometary brightness.
NEW PAPER, 3/5/2013. The Cometary Antitail. Comet theory is welcomed to the 21st century with a charge update, explaining many mysteries.
NEW PAPER, 2/21/2013. The Icecaps on Mercury prove my Charge Field. Charge recycling is the easy answer to a seemingly baffling mystery.
NEW PAPER, 2/18/2013. Quantum Mechanics meets Conspiracy Theory. A classroom skit at Columbia fails in spectacular fashion, with link to video.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 1/21/2013. My third book is coming out soon and I am now fielding blurbs for the back cover. If you haven't had a blurb on one of my other books, and have something appropriate, email me with it. If I print it you will get a free signed book. This one will concentrate on nuclear structure and charge recycling, but my rainbow paper will also be included, among other things.
NEW PAPER, 1/11/2013. Qualms concerning the Inflationary Scenario. By Bernard Lavenda and Jeremy Dunning-Davies. Reprinted by permission, including a new preface by Dunning-Davies.
NEW PAPER, 1/8/2013. NASA's Lunar Gravity Maps. I closely analyze the maps and interpretations from GRAIL.
NEW PAPER, 1/8/2013. GPS and General Relativity. I show that GPS doesn't use and doesn't need to use GR, but that this doesn't affect the truth of Relativity.
PAPER UPDATE, 1/7/2013. Another Hole in Celestial Mechanics. This paper from a few years ago, discussing Ralph Rene and the lunar orbit, has been updated. I posted a very faulty diagram, which I have corrected. This correction does not affect my main argument however. Current theory cannot match the given lunar motions with gravity only, and my new diagrams make that even clearer.
For those of you keeping score, that was 81 papers in 2012, up from 54 in 2011. That included 13 papers in March and 11 in December. Those who were worried I was slacking off in September should be reassured. A slow month doesn't mean I am finished, it just means I am painting.
NEW PAPER, 12/31/2012. Shoe Sizing as an analogy to Current Physics. A bit lighter paper to end the year.
NEW PAPER, 12/28/2012. The Einstein Field Equations, Part 3. I continue my previous analyses of the General Theory, concentrating here on subsection 13, where I show how the fundamental tensor fails.
NEW PAPER, 12/27/2012. The Einstein Field Equations, Part 2. I continue my previous analyses of the General Theory, concentrating here on subsection 5, where I show the total collapse of the proof.
NEW PAPER, 12/25/2012. The Einstein Field Equations, Part 1. I continue my previous analyses of the General Theory, going straight the original papers of Einstein.
NEW PAPER, 12/21/2012. More Problems with the Friedmann Metric. I show that the generic metric is mathematically compromised in many ways, the most important of which is its hidden derivation from x' = x - vt.
NEW PAPER, 12/21/2012. The Failure of the Friedmann Metric. I show how the Manhattan metric destroys the Friedmann metric, and all current metrics.
NEW PAPER, 12/21/2012. COBE and WMAP: Signal Analysis by Fact or Fiction? by Stephen Crothers. This is a republication of Crothers' article from Electronics World, March 2010.
NEW PAPER, 12/18/2012. A Higgs Update. A December announcement by LHC confirms my predictions from September, concerning multiple "Higgs" at the 120GeV level.
PAPER UPDATE, 12/18/2012. The Manhattan Metric. I have added an animation sent me by a reader, as well as a link to a Caltech video on youtube. Both support my analysis.
NEW PAPER, 12/17/2012. Why is Anti-Helium4 so hard to create? I do the math and the physics, showing that the mainstream explanations are wrong.
NEW PAPER, 12/16/2012. What is the Fundamental Physics Prize? I deconstruct all the PR since July 2012.
NEW PAPER, 12/12/2012. The Manhattan Metric. Where I show the specific links to Hilbert's math, further supporting my contention that π=4 in kinematic situations.
PAPER UPDATE, 12/10/2012. The Extinction of Pi. In an important update, I show that my pi=4 metric is basically equivalent to Hilbert's Taxicab or Manhattan metric, where pi also equals 4. This should silence my critics on this issue.
NEW PAPER, 12/5/2012. The Black Hole Math is False. A press release for Stephen Crothers, who has exploded the tensor math beneath black holes.
NEW PAPER, 11/29/2012. Cyclotron Radiation. Accelerator data proves the mass of the photon and radius of the electron.
NEW PAPER, 11/28/2012. Music from Jupiter. A song of the charge field. How radio waves from Jupiter prove my charge field once again.
NEW PAPER, 11/19/2012. Perturbation Theory in the Light of Charge. This is a continuation of my paper on Laplace, showing specific examples of the charge field in historical field equations.
NEW PAPER, 11/8/2012. CO2 and Charge. I show a better way to calculate residence times for CO2.
NEW PAPER, 11/4/2012. The Unified Field explains the Atmosphere. We look at oxygen, nitrogen, argon and CO2, finding that the charge field explains many things.
NEW PAPER, 10/24/2012. NASA Discovers my Charge Field...Again. Not "lonesome stars," but charge.
NEW PAPER, 10/22/2012. Sheldrake and the Skeptics. In which I show how both sides are manufactured to divert you.
NEW PAPER, 10/20/2012. A Conundrum concerning the Surface Area of a Sphere. The spherical surface area proof was done better by Archimedes than by this modern integral proof, which is pushed.
NEW PAPER, 10/19/2012. We Watch Pascal Finesse a Proof. The spherical surface area proof was done better by Archimedes.
NEW PAPER, 10/16/2012. Is Big G a Constant? No. A brief clarification on this, as well amusing commentary on Rupert Sheldrake and his detractors.
NEW PAPER, 10/13/2012. Helium4 a Boson? No. A long analysis of bosons, fermions, spin-statistics, and superfluidity.
NEW PAPER, 10/9/2012. Higgs Parade gets rained out. A full analysis and critique of the the paper at PLB, including a solution.
NEW PAPER, 9/28/2012. Diatomic Hydrogen. My new charge bonding explains this much better than electron sharing. Plus an analysis of spin isomers.
PAPER UPDATE, 8/30/2012. Splitting the Electron? No, not really. I have made a couple of corrections to this paper, to match it to findings in my two newer papers on the subject. My nuclear diagrams were a bit off, which threw off my math. I was able to correct the math on bond lengths, making it match data much better.
NEW PAPER, 8/25/2012. The Charge Profile of Sr2CuO3. How to read the data from Schlappa et al. correctly.
NEW PAPER, 8/24/2012. More on the Orbiton. A close reading of the letter at Nature, showing how the data is pushed.
ANNOUNCEMENT, 8/7/2012. My recent paper on Plate Tectonics is being published this month by the Australian Institute of Geoscientists, which bills itself as "the leading professional institute representing geoscientists in all professional sectors throughout Australia." Their professional journal is available to their subscribers only, but of course you can continue to read the paper here.
NEW PAPER, 7/31/2012. Splitting the Electron? No, not really. I show the holes in spinon theory, then present my own mechanical solution.
NEW PAPER, 7/28/2012. How to unify the constants G, k, and α. I show the simple equation, tying all three to the Bohr radius as well.
NEW PAPER, 7/27/2012. More Developments on G. I try to explain the 2.5 discrepancy between G and the cubed Dalton.
NEW PAPER, 7/26/2012. The LED lightbulb taps the Charge Field. "Atomic thermal energy" IS the charge field.
NEW PAPER, 7/19/2012. Dark Matter as Massless Photons in the 4th Dimension? No. A critique of "Through the Wormhole" theory.
NEW PAPER, 7/18/2012. Why is Mercury's Magnetism 1% that of the Earth? Simple equations show the answer. Also, more proof of charge recycling from the MESSENGER satellite.